Android is an open source and Linux-based Operating System for mobile devices such as smartphones, tablets and computers. Android was developed by the Open Handset Alliance, led by Google, and other companies.
Three parts from the definition:-
1) Open source
2) Linux based
3) Operating system
1) Open Source:
1. This source code of a computer program is made available free of charge to the general public.
2. Users can view the code that companies the software and make changes to it they want.
3. Anyone can use the source code and distribute their program from it.
I. Open means license free which we can operate easily with operating system application coding.
II. The development of Linux is one of the most prominent examples of free and open source software collaboration.
2) Linux Based:
Linus kernel Torvalds: The creator of the Linux Operating System, was born December 28, 1969, in Helsinki, Finland. His grandfather had a Commodore VIC-20 that he had the opportunity to work with; by age ten he was already dabbling in programming.
Linus is a family of free and open source software operating systems built around the Linux kernel The development of Linux is one of the most prominent examples of free and open source software collaboration.
Android developed by:
1) Andy Rubin
2) Nick Sears
3) Rich Miner
3) Operation System:
An operating system is a software program that enables the hardware to communicate and operate with software. The operating system is an Interface between user and hardware. The operating system provides a software platform on top of which other programs called application program called can run.
Set of Operating System:
- An operating system
- Middleware is some set of libraries that help the developer work
- Key application SMS phones logs cameras
- Fully customize
Based on the Linux kernel in the architecture the Linux kernel COBOL
Three common Operating Systems used by devices:
ANDROID operation group there are 80 plus companies to give every new feature to the mobile phone.
- Software compare Google, eBay, etc.
- Handset companies HTC, Samsung
- Mobile operators Airtel, Vodafone, etc.
- Semiconductors our processor Intel, etc.
- Commercialization companies advertising companies
Android offers a unified approach to application development for mobile devices which means developers need only develop for Android, and their applications should be able to run on different devices powered by Android.
The first beta version of 2007 was released by Google:
• Android Software Development Kit (SDK)
• The first commercial version, Android 1.0, was released in September 2008.
On June 27, 2012, at the Google I/O conference, Google announced the Android version, 4.1 Jelly Bean.
• Jelly Bean is an incremental update.
• The primary aim of improving the user interface, both in terms of functionality and performance.
• The source code for Android is available under free and open-source software licenses.
• Google publishes most of the code under the Apache License version 2.0 and the rest, Linux kernel changes, under the GNU General Public License version 2.
History of Android:
The code names of android range from A to N currently, and famous food brands such as Astro, Blender, Cupcake, Donut, Eclair, Froyo, Gingerbread, Honeycomb, Ice Cream Sandwich, Jelly Bean, KitKat, Lollipop, and Marshmallow. Let’s understand the android history in a sequence.
• Oct 2003
• July 2005 google acquired Andriod inc and made Andy Rubin the director of the mobile phone platform
• November 2007 open handset alliance was formed OHA
• October 2008 android was open source
• April 2009 and 1.5 cupcakes were released
• Version 1.6 donut quick search
• Froyo control with voice
• Ginger bread 2.3 boost the battery life
• Honey con own tablet
• Ice cream sandwich user controllable customize
• Jelly beans 4.1 using India
• Kit Kat voice of google
• Lolly pop combine both
• Marshmallow the user using now
ANDROID USE IN MOBILE PHONES:
They come in use for communicating through voice, messages, and emails. We can also surf the internet using a phone. Most importantly, we also click photos and record videos through our mobile cameras. The phones of this age are known as smartphones.
Android – Architecture:
The Android operating system is a stack of software components that is roughly divided into five sections and four main layers as shown below in the architecture diagram. Android Architecture
The application programming interface can be easily used by the developer.
Android applications are usually developed in the Java language using the Android Software Development Kit.
Once developed, Android applications can be packaged easily and sold out either through a store such as Google Play, SlideME, Opera Mobile Store, Mobango, F-droid, and the Amazon Appstore.
Android powers hundreds of millions of mobile devices in more than 190 countries around the world. It’s the largest installed base of any mobile platform and growing fast. Every day more than 1 million new Android devices are activated worldwide.
Android is a powerful operating system. Its features are given below:
SQLite, a lightweight relational database, is used for data storage purposes.
GSM/EDGE, IDEN, CDMA, EV-DO, UMTS, Bluetooth, Wi-Fi, LTE, NFC and WiMAX.
c. Beautiful UI:
Android OS basic screen provides a beautiful and intuitive user interface.
d. Media Support:
H.263, H.264, MPEG-4 SP, AMR, AMR-WB, AAC, HE-AAC, AAC 5.1, MP3, MIDI, Ogg Vorbis, WAV, JPEG, PNG, GIF, and BMP.
e. Web Browser:
SMS and MMS.
Android has native support for multi-touch which was initially made available in handsets such as the HTC Hero.
User can jump from one task to another and same time various application can run simultaneously.
i. Resizable Widgets
Widgets are resizable, so users can expand them to show more content or shrink them to save space.
Supports single direction and bi-directional text.
Google Cloud Messaging (GCM) is a service that lets developers send short message data to their users on Android devices, without needing a proprietary sync solution.
l. Wi-Fi Direct:
A technology that lets apps discover and pair directly, over a high-bandwidth peer-to-peer connection.
m. Android Beam:
A popular NFC-based technology that lets users instantly share, just by touching two NFC-enabled phones together.